Ultra sonic frequency, low amplitude vibrations between two flat plates have been shown to create a squeeze film of air between the two plate surfaces thereby reducing the friction. Here, it is shown that a reduction of friction will also occur between a human finger and a vibrating plate. Thus, a vibrating plate can serve as a haptic interface. The amplitude of vibration can also be correlated to the amount of friction reduction the plate and the finger. Varying the surface friction between the finger and the haptic interface is a way of indirectly controlling shear forces on the finger during active exploration. Using finger position and velocity feedback on the display allows for the creation of spatial texture sensations.
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The IOIO (pronounced “yo-yo”) is a board specially designed to work with your Android device (OS versions 1.5 and greater). The board provides extensive and robust connectivity to an Android device via a USB connection. The IOIO is fully controllable from within an Android application, using a simple and intuitive Java API – no embedded programming or external programmer will ever be needed, even for firmware upgrades!
The IOIO board contains a single MCU that acts as a USB host and interprets commands from an Android app. In addition, the IOIO can interact with peripheral devices in the same way as most MCUs. Digital Input/Output, PWM, Analog Input, I2C, SPI, and UART control can all be used with the IOIO. Code to control these interfaces is written in the same way as you write an Android app with the help of a simple to use app-level library. In other words, you can combine the awesome computing power, Internet/Bluetooth connectivity, touch screen, and a variety of sensors from your Android device with the ability to easily add peripheral devices to interact with the outside world.